Unilateral Conduct

EC Treaty provisions on competition

Title VI: Common rules on competition, taxation and approximation of laws
Chap. I: Rules on competition
Sect. I: Rules applying to undertakings


Here you find the art.82 (now art. 102 TFEU), as cited in Scherer's paper, "Abuse of dominance by high technology enterprises", p.54, as well as in Prof. Vezzoso's paper "The Incentive Balance Test in the EU Microsoft case".


Here below you will find COMESA Competition Regulation, in which Ethiopia is one of member countries. Abuse of dominant position is dealt in Article 18 of this Competition Regulation.


In the link below you will find official translation of Latvian competition law as adopted by Latvian Competition Council (LCC) in 2001 with all subsequent amendments. The document was sourced from official LCC web site. Relevan sections for abuse of dominant power are 13th and 14th.


You find Serbia's relevant provisions on abuses of dominant position under the LAW ON PROTECTION OF COMPETITION on the following URLs:
1. the english version is on http://www.kzk.org.rs/kzk/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/ZAKON-O-ZASTITI-KONKURENCIJE-ENGL-PDF-FORMAT.pdf (section II. INFRINGEMENTS OF COMPETITION; 2. Abuse of a dominant position (Dominant position on the market & Abuse of a dominant position)).
2. the original document is on http://www.kzk.org.rs/kzk/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/ZAKON-O-ZASTITI-KONKURENCIJE.pdf (section II. ПОВРЕДЕ КОНКУРЕНЦИЈЕ; 2. Злоупотреба доминантног положаја (Доминантан положај на тржишту & Злоупотреба доминантног положаја)).


You can find Russian relevant provisions on abuses of dominant position under the LAW ON PROTECTION OF COMPETITION on the following URLs:
1. Non-official english translation. Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Protection of Competition" (as amended in 2009).
2. The original version (russian). Федеральный закон № 135-ФЗ "О защите конкуренции" (в редакции от 29.11.2010).

The Sate Duma of the Russian Federation unanimously approved the “third antimonopoly package” of amendments in the second reading. (17.11.2011)


Click the following link to find the provisions on abuses of dominant position in The Competition Act, 2002 (Competition Commission of India):


Abuse of dominant position according to italian antitrust legislationunderline text

English Version (AGCM), Italian Antitrust Authority

Section 3

Abuse of a dominant position

1. The abuse by one or more undertakings of a dominant position within the domestic market or in a substantial part of it is prohibited. It is also prohibited:

a) directly or indirectly to impose unfair purchase or selling prices or other unfair contractual conditions;

b) to limit or restrict production, market outlets or market access, investment, technical development or technological progress;

c) to apply to other trading partners objectively dissimilar conditions for equivalent transactions, thereby placing them at an unjustifiable competitive disadvantage;

d) to make the conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by the other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts.

link: http://www.agcm.it/en/comp/1727-law-no-287-of-october-10th-1990.html

Italian Version (AGCM)underline text

Art. 3.

Abuso di posizione dominante

1. È vietato l'abuso da parte di una o più imprese di una posizione dominante all'interno del mercato nazionale o in una sua parte rilevante, ed inoltre è vietato:

a) imporre direttamente o indirettamente prezzi di acquisto, di vendita o altre condizioni contrattuali ingiustificatamente gravose;

b) impedire o limitare la produzione, gli sbocchi o gli accessi al mercato, lo sviluppo tecnico o il progresso tecnologico, a danno dei consumatori;

c) applicare nei rapporti commerciali con altri contraenti condizioni oggettivamente diverse per prestazioni equivalenti, così da determinare per essi ingiustificati svantaggi nella concorrenza;

d) subordinare la conclusione dei contratti all'accettazione da parte degli altri contraenti di prestazioni supplementari che, per loro natura e secondo gli usi commerciali, non abbiano alcuna connessione con l'oggetto dei contratti stessi.



The original, German version of the Federal Competition Law can be found here:
A short summary:
What is ‘Abuse of dominant market position’?
§5 (1) If a company does not have enough competition it can act basically independent from its competitors and in consequence also from its consumers. It is not forbidden to hold such a dominant position. Aim of cartel law and the Austrian Competition Authority is to stop the misuse of such a position.
It is improper or abusive use if dominant companies discriminate against other companies or consumers of other companies in a way that would be impossible with effective competition.
It is forbidden to misuse a dominant position. Misuse can occur in the following ways:
direct or indirect enforcement of disproportionate buying or selling prizes or any other terms of business, inadequate payment terms and interest for delay;
constraint of production, sale or technical development resulting in harm of the consumer;
discrimination of contracting parties by applying different conditions to equal goods and services;
the unjustified sale of goods below market value. (In this case the burden of proof lies with the dominant company.)

An English translation can be found here:
Austrian laws, List of laws in English, Federal Act Against Unfair Competition of 1984

The Austrian Federal Constitutional Law also refers to competition in “Chapter 1 I General Provisions I European Union “ Art. 10 and Art. 20.
A bilingual version can be found using the same link:
Austrian laws, List of laws in English, Federal Constitutional Law

(A direct link to the pdf file unfortunately yields in a result using only special characters from most browsers, so there are 3 more clicks to do from the link.)


You can find Vietnam relevant provisions on abuses of dominant position under the COMPETITION LAW on the following URLs:


For the translation in english version :


( * * * in practical: for the crucial issue reared to abuse dominance position you can look up the " Section 2. ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION ON THE MARKET" in Chapter II " CONTROL OF COMPETITION RESTRICTION ACTS " .)

For the overview presentation



You can find Polish relevant provisions on abuses of dominant position under the LAW ON PROTECTION OF COMPETITION on the following URLs:
1. http://www.uokik.gov.pl/download.php?plik=7618 (Title II, Chapter 2) - english version
2. http://www.uokik.gov.pl/ochrona_konkurencji_.php (Dział II, Rozdział 2) - polish version; the first link which you can find on this website is a direct link to the relevant pdf file [Ustawa z dnia 16 lutego 2007 r. o ochronie konkurencji i konsumentów (Dz. U. 2007 r. Nr 50, poz. 331 ze zm.)]


Click the link below that you can find the content of Anti-Unfair Competition Law of the People's Republic of China.
1. http://www.gov.cn/banshi/2005-08/31/content_68766.htm - Chinese Version.
2. http://www.lawinfochina.com/display.aspx?lib=law&id=648 - English Version and Chinese Version in contrast. (I just find this translation, there's no official file in English probably)

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